Wednesday, September 04, 2013

Syria, the Arab Spring, and the Ottoman Empire

As tempted as I have felt to rant write about Syria, I resisted that urge, but I seem to have crossed my own "red line"!

The following is a repeat post from two years ago, with minor edits:

The “Arab Spring” is the final unraveling of the Ottoman Empire.

It is now three years since the self-immolation of a Tunisian street merchant—a horrific act that captured the imaginations of millions and launched the widespread movement in the Middle East to remove authoritarian governments, in favor of democracy.

Almost all the countries included in the ongoing Arab Spring were once part of the powerful and expansive Ottoman Empire, whose prominence was marked by the conquest of Constantinople in 1453.  The city became Istanbul and the empire’s capital too.  It was no surprise, therefore, that soon Suleiman and his forces were knocking on Vienna’s doors. 


As empires always do, the Ottoman Empire, also, started its decline after a successful run, and the descent accelerated in the 19th century.  Again, as it happens with empires, the decline was marked by its territories being taken over by other powers.  Tunisia was one of those, as were the other Arab Spring countries of Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Syria, Morocco, and Yemen.  The Pasha was replaced by European colonial powers.  The First World War, whose conclusion we mark with Armistice Day and Veterans Day, had an additional effect of removing the remnants of the Ottoman Empire. 

The final untangling from the Ottoman ties began with the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991.  The Balkans, too, were once a part of the Ottoman Empire, and Yugoslavia was held together by authoritarian governments, until the death of President Tito and, later, the collapse of the Soviet Bloc.  When the authoritarian structures were gone, for the first time people in Yugoslavia had an opportunity to establish their own political identities.  Unfortunately, it turned out to be violent and bloody, and triggered external intervention from the US and its NATO allies.

The collapse of the Soviet Union created new countries that were also former Ottoman territories—Armenia and Azerbaijan.  These had been swallowed by the Russian Czars and, after the Bolshevik Revolution, became a part of the USSR. 

When all that dust settled, more or less, the decade that followed began with the events of September 11, 2001.  

One of the grand plans that preoccupied Osama bin Laden’s maniacal approach was the creation of an Islamic state that would continue where the Ottoman Empire had ended.  His logic was that the US was propping up the governments in Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Libya, to name a few, and that weakening the US would make possible the supra-Islamic state. 

In this decade, fortunately, the Arab Spring is the exact opposite of what bin Laden had envisioned.  The peoples of the former territories of the Ottoman Empire are protesting against their rulers not because they want to re-create an Islamic empire.  When the Tunisian street merchant set himself on fire, it was because he was fed up with having to deal with the corrupt rulers—all the way down to the local police.  Egyptians similarly were tired of Hosni Mubarak and his cronies looting away the wealth, while the youth were jobless with highly insecure futures. 

Dictators and authoritarian governments have been the norm since the end of the Ottoman Empire, and even after the people in the Arab Spring countries had witnessed the departure of the European colonizers.  Tunisia, for instance, was a French colony until 1956, but independence did not usher in freedom and democracy. 

The correlation between the Arab Spring and the Ottoman Empire is also reflected in the case of Saudi Arabia, which has not experienced mass protests—Saudi Arabia was not a part of the Ottoman Empire.

The Arab Spring is a reminder, in a way, that our contemporary lives are intricately connected with events from the past—something that historians often remind us about but is easily forgotten by most of the rest of us. 

The continued linkage with the past means that even as we keep one eye on the Arab Spring, the other remains fixed on at least one byproduct of the end of the British Empire that the world worries about--Pakistan.  

Empires strike back, even from their graves!


Ramesh said...

Yes, the unravelling of the Ottomon Empire has been happening for a long time . Over the years, it has got mixed up so much with other historical events - the unravelling of the British, the Soviet empires, etc etc.

One of the things that is troubling me about the Arab Spring - are the people better off today that what they were 3 years ago. Will they be better off 10 years from now. The answers, alas, are ambiguous.

Sriram Khé said...

Yeah, with all the car-bombing every other day in Iraq, are the people any better off now compared to three, five, or ten years ago?
And if Iraq is not any better, then what does it say about the conditions in Syria when some people are fleeing Syria to seek refuge in Iraq????

que sera sera?

btw, sometime in the future the American empire will start unraveling too? ;)

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